QSA - Lanedri and the Audiophile Version of the Philosophers’ Stone

JackJohnson316

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Here’s a link that describes a technique to use both cryogenic treatment while degaussing at the same time. According to the article it makes copper so efficient that conductors can be reduced by 90% while maintaining the same efficiency. Maybe QSA cryogenically treats and degausses at the same time. Here’s the article: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.2908558
 

darkfrank

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Why has nobody brought up the possibility (likelihood) that the QSA "process" is a cryogenic treatment?
There are many variations of such and if done correctly it is highly audible and effective. Long ago I worked with a firm specializing in it. They offered their services and proprietary process (rate of cooling, final coldest temp., how long at that temp., then how long and rate of bringing back up to room temp.) to golf club manufacturers, cutting tool makers, drum kit cymbal and drum head/rim assemblies, and to audio manufacturers. It was great, but when done on cables (or capacitors) with Teflon insulation, it would double or triple the already exceedingly long time that Teflon takes to "burn-in."

I believe QSA is just similiar to SCHNERZINGER which claim of the "atomic bonding" technology and actaully are all being processed by some sort of burn-in machine.

If anyone ever been tried to listen to cables processed with Telos QBT, the sound signature are so much different that it really doesnt sound like the same one before.
 
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taipan254

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Here’s a link that describes a technique to use both cryogenic treatment while degaussing at the same time. According to the article it makes copper so efficient that conductors can be reduced by 90% while maintaining the same efficiency. Maybe QSA cryogenically treats and degausses at the same time. Here’s the article: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.2908558

Is it possible to Degauss and Cryogenically treat a cable without "performing surgery" on the cable (e.g., removing leads from connectors, removing shielding, etc.)?
 

stehno

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I guess most are familiar with the fable of the Philosophers Stone…..essentially the tale of the ancient Alchemists’ search for a stone (ingredient) that would turn base metals into Gold. Well apparently QSA-Lanedri have found the audiophile equivalent, which I believe is worthy of some discussion.

I have been an audiophile for over 50 years, with the last 4 spent developing a dedicated digital streaming system. Up to 4 years ago my experience with digital was that it consistently proved inferior to analog, but thanks to the inputs from 3 fellow audiophiles (DIY gurus) and 2 hi-fi designers that has now changed. Having implemented a number of their suggestions I came to very much rely on their inputs and advice, so when 2 of them began messaging and posting about QSA fuses and later about QSA-Lanedri cables, I immediately became interested. Both these guys have lucrative careers while hi-fi is their passion, so my belief in their findings is 100%. Neither has any financial or business relationships with QSA-Lanedri and get no financial reward for promoting their products. My conclusion is that QSA-Lanedri really have discovered something remarkable with the potential to revolutionise the hi-fi industry. This thread is intended to provide a place to discuss actual experiences with the products, to discuss your take on their perceived value and to ‘speculate/hypothesise’ on what the process may be that brings such spectacular results in terms of improved sound quality. It is based on the assumption that the products do what they claim and seeks to come up with possible ways of how they achieve this.

Let me provide a few observations to get things started

1. The ‘treatment’ is applied to fully confected cables and plugs, so must be fully compatible with all the soft plastics used in plug and cable manufacture
2. The treatment is not patented, so either it’s extremely unlikely to be discovered and therefore not worth the patent costs (which are considerable) or the treatment itself isn‘t patentable ie. Isn’t non-obvious or novel
3. The treatment can be applied to any cable or plug so isn’t product dependent
4. There appears to be no outward signs of any modifications to any treated products
5. There’s a scale of products, so it seems the process can be either tuned, adjusted or dosed to modify/enhance the effect on the treated cable
6. Listeners have observed that the effect of the treatment is greater on less pure metals i.e metals with greater level of impurities
7. Listeners have observed that the closer the treated product is to the ‘end point’ the greater the effect i.e downstream untreated conductors reverses some of the benefit
8. Its claimed that over 22 years of R&D went into the process but my own key-word searches revealed no related or relevant publications, so its likely the R&D was performed either in a private or commercial capacity rather than as part of a research institution e.g university that depends on publishing results to justify its funding.
9. Humans have studied the structures and behaviours of metals and their related molecules and atoms for well over a century, but not as they apply to their ‘sonic qualities and attributes’ .
10. QSA- Lanedri claims that the treatment occurs at the ‘molecular or atomic level‘ and is ‘quantum‘ in nature
11. QSA-Lanedri list the following technologies as key attributes:
- Metal Molecular Activation Technology
- Musical Metal Molecule Alignment Technology
- Skin Deep Compensation Technology
12. The cables themselves start out life as complete $50 - $100 Blue Jeans and Iconocast cables that following treatment sell for $2,500 - $6,000. Power cables are based on Sablon Prince ($3,250) and Sablon King ($3,950) which following treatment sell for $6,000 - $9,000 and $8,000 - $12, 000 respectively.
13. Iconoclast and /Blue Jeans cables are themselves made from bulk off the reel Belden and Canare cable
14. Listeners have observed that the greater the metal content of the cables and plugs, the greater the effect of the treatment
Interesting topic. I've only skimmed this and the other thread so forgive me if any of this has already been stated.

Based on your 1 thru 14 list and my numerous experiences and treatment methodologies, I'd venture to say that quite possibly all 14 attributes / characteristics you list could be applied to cryogenically treating cables and every other electrical object including fuses, plugs, inlets, outlets, etc.

Might this be a new more extreme version of cryo-treating? Once introduced to the sonic benefits, I was sending out all of my cables to be cryo-treated. Soon I started experimenting with having my electrical objects double-cryo-treated for even further but diminishing gains.

But it turns out that was all with the inferior vapor method of cryo-treating an object. 8 years later I was introduced to the superior full-immersion method of cryo-treating and as one vendor said, the difference between the two methods is like eating half-baked cookies and that seemed fairly accurate compared to my experiences.

I did inquire about double-cryo'ing via the full immersion method but was told it's unnecessary as the object in question need only reach the I think -324.5 degree mark once for full effect.

I remember one time where I'd replaced all fuses and plugs and IEC conntectors at the same time with cryo-treated versions and after burn-in was astounded by the results. But I still wasn't quite performing metaphoric cartwheels in the streets.

Perhaps there's a new more extreme method to this cryo-treating biz? Liquid helium has a boiling point of something like -650 degrees.

Regardless, some of the performance claims I read are a bit of a hard pill to swallow and I don't put much stock into anything Clement Perry might say. I always have to remind myself that just because some "audiophile" is doing cartwheels in the streets doesn't necessarily imply experiences are all that fantastic. After all, a drop of water in the desert can seem like a gallon of water to some.

But there are several claims that cause my radar to go up a bit.

1. Fuses only. A run of cable / wire is usually only as good as its weakest link. If a 1-inch fuse from heaven is inserted and generates off-the-chart results, what does that say about the rest of the cabling/wiring? It must be from heaven too, right?

2. Why the various models and prices? For example. In the case of cryo-treating via the superior full-immersion method, the object either has it or it doesn't (on or off) and there are no in between variations to the best of my knowledge. That implies QSA partially treats objects as tiny as a fuse. Why would anybody partially treat a tiny object like a fuse in any way, shape, or form?

3. If the performance claims are not hyperbole, then that kinda' implies that everything else we might do to a system pales in comparison and matters little. Not saying it's impossible but doesn't seem very logical. In my limited experience the two greatest improvements anybody can make to any playback system are found by addressing two noise floors.

- The first noise floor is electrically-induced and has everything to do with electric current flow starting before or at the service panel and ending at the speaker input.
- The second noise floor is acoustically-induced and has everything to do with the interface / acoustic-coupling of a speaker to its associated room. This acoustic noise floor starts at the speaker and ends with the room.

IMO, both noise floors are potentially huge benefits - at least when taken to the extreme.

This QSA treatment clearly falls under the first electric-induced noise floor umbrella but again, whatever objects QSA is treating is but a small segment of a much larger puzzle. For example. To the best of my knowledge QSA treatments do nothing to cleanse / purify the extremely noisy AC coming in from the street nor do they claim to. Cleansing or purifying the noisy AC coming in from the street alone has huge sonic potentials but seems outside of QSA's scope. Also, QSA is not treating any objects internal to the components (other than fuses) nor in the speakers so there's gaping holes there as well. Again, huge potential benefits but seems clearly outside QSA's current scope.

If the performance gains are legit, then it should take next to nothing for most any QSA consumer to generate an in-room video/recording of their playback system so we don't have to just take others' word for these fabulous performance gains.

Don't get me wrong as I'm confident there will always be new technologies and methods to potentially obliterate the status quo.

But reading some of these performance claims, I can't help but think of 2 editors-in-chief who starting in 2014 claimed that cows were now jumping over the moon with the newly-introduced MQA format and the many who bought into that and it turned out to be a huge nothing burger.

But again, a reasonable in-room recording would do wonders for some of us to substantiate some of these tremendous performance claims.
 
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marty

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14. Listeners have observed that the greater the metal content of the cables and plugs, the greater the effect of the treatment
Please help me understand this one, Do you mean that the absolute amount of metal (i.e. wire gauge) is the key variable, or the purity of the metal (i.e. copper content..how many 9's)?
 

Iving

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Please help me understand this one, Do you mean that the absolute amount of metal (i.e. wire gauge) is the key variable, or the purity of the metal (i.e. copper content..how many 9's)?

According to romaz here (bullets 4 and 5), both.
 

justubes

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I am tryimg to figure and conteplating acquiring the lan cable which was much said to show very much the QSA effect even over the power cables of much higher mass.

Lan cables are possibly the smaller conductor gauges commonly 26 to 30awg.

This is a far cry from a 0 gauge conductor which was said to be the most ideal to gear the QSA treatmeny.

Has anyone compared the lan to something higher in the food chain than the sablon lan cable.

I have heard the Sablons and they are certainly nive for that price point.
 

Iving

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the ancient Alchemists’ search for a stone (ingredient) that would turn base metals into Gold.

Psychological herd factors are a more plausible explanation of QSA effects than unspecified "quantum" ones. The onus of demonstration is on the strong assertion. Otherwise the “null hypothesis” is the accepted position, and the novel alternative the one most in need of confirmation (conventionally through empirical corroboration and weight of statistical evidence). This is a reasonable basis for discussion of our particular “Philosopher’s Stone”. No need for measurements, statistics or “proof”, nevertheless. We are audiophiles sharing with each other. The human factor is hard to ignore.


QSA won’t share IP. Understood. They overcome “bottle neck distortion”. From the sponsored thread posted by host:

Backed by … measurementsActing at the quantum level … QSA technology enables any metal to behave similar to a superconductor … impressions on the SQ will follow in other posts by everyone who has tried them … All I can say that QSA applied on a quantum level is revolutionary … the cables will definitely sound better after enough burn-in … The listening sessions are not anymore about listening to music but one is swimming with body and soul in the ocean of music vibrations ... The impact of the cables on the TV is astonishing … light is not anymore inside the TV … Watching TV becomes a teleportation experience and it is so addictive … The scope of the End-to-End chain we target is from the electricity panel to the speakers. I totally understand the frustration of not having any visibility on the QSA technology ... but everything vanishes once one starts living the experience with the QSA Lanedri cables. We are increasing the expectation to sky-high.


From the sponsored thread posted by others:

I have been around the block a few times … I have experienced certain $20k power cords, $30k DACs, and $50k amps that failed to have this level of impact ... I found myself completely drawn in. When Anas told me in the fall of 2021 that he had formed a partnership with QSA ... he asked for my help … with no real hesitation, I agreed … I was completely blinded to the science and engineering behind the process … We treated and tested some of the most expensive cables we could find but also skimmed the bottom of the barrel … The magic that you will hear ... has very little to do with the cables themselves. There is NOTHING that Anas and I have encountered in the past that compares to what QSA treatment offers. Not even close … feel free to laugh and be skeptical (this is what we expect any sane person would do) … No golden ears or eyes required … the impact of treatment is generally a much lower noise floor, greater dynamics, better control, a more substantial sound stage, more air with better separation, better definition, clarity, speed, and truer timbre. With the more expensive Infiinty line, where the amount of treatment applied is essentially doubled, these qualities improve further … QSA treatment can be applied in grades and can be adjusted to balance transparency with musicality … the higher the purity of the starting conductor, the smaller the impact of the treatment … The greater the mass of conductor, the greater the impact of QSA's treatment … the Gamma Ethernet cable … started life as an inexpensive Blue Jeans Cable … almost completely renders the network moot in my system … the QSA-Lanedri cables are a game changer and they have changed how I now view the worldIt really is like a disease … I have ... replaced my entire cable loom with the QSA-Lanedri line … we are sometimes asked by newbies what they should start with when building an audio system … today, in the day of QSA, I find myself to be a "conductor-first" audiophile … start with a inexpensive NUC, DAC, class D amps, and a pair of full range speakers that your spouse will approve of. From there, I would go with a full loom of QSA-Lanedri cables … do everything you can to move up to the Ultimatum speaker cables … there is a period of "accommodation" ... The first will be your own brain's accommodation to what you are hearing … The other accommodation that you need to prepare yourself for is a legitimate burn-in process … should you hear some ups and downs with these cables over the first few days, just hang in there … QSA's proprietary treatment ... reportedly involves a permanent alteration of the conductor at a quantum level … It really is a Cinderella story … There is a modification of the QSA treatment that especially excels with video ... however, with audio ... it may be too much of a good thing … As good as the SGM Extreme is ... my nVidia TV Shield Pro ... fed data from an expensive QSA Gamma Infinity LAN cable and powered by a Paul Hynes SR4 LPSU with QSA Silver fuse and a Gamma Infinity power cord was outperforming a $30k music server. If you can turn a rock into gold for less than the price of actual gold, what does it matter how much that rock cost? … If you score the relative net impact of an outlet as a 3 ... a Jitter might be a 3.5, a fuse ... between a 3-3.5, and a power cable a 10, then ... overall impact ... all of those things added together … As you've now dipped your toes into QSA waters … the challenge now is how to get the most bang for your buck with your next QSA item … No one is putting a gun to your head to buy these cables … you should not pass judgement on something unless you've heard it for yourself … It's as if QSA treatment filters noise and in my opinion, this must be what's happening. [r]

I am ordering your top cables now as there is zero risk … I believe after reading Romaz Opinion I will be unable to retun them. But honestly this is exacltly what I want … When should we expect the full performance ? [K]

Nat King Cole ... blew my mind. He was just THERE right in front of me almost to the point where it seemed as if his ghost had made an actual appearance in my room … it did not prepare me for what I heard tonight … more like an actually performance ... Finally I got to hear what the QSA excitement is about! … it’s only been three days! I think I need to call in sick tomorrow … these cables have nearly vanished. [k]

My mind was racing to piece together why this thing that felt so real was not there, like a great illusion where you cannot figure out the trick. My wife even sat down and was like wow all those noises are really distracting! [A]

It looks like ordinary Cat 5 cable, but trust me, there is nothing ordinary about it … The audio coming from the L/C/R channels in my sound bar now has more body and depth than ever before. [a]

I knew there would be plenty of potential there that would unleash itself over time … I like to think of the addition of QSA cables as removal of various bottlenecks. [E]

During the course of R&D, Anas was kind enough to allow me to evaluate Gamma Revelation power, XLR, and LAN cables, as well as a Gamma Infinity power cable ... these ... deliver a startling improvement. [ap]

Consider yourself a normal, sane audiophile if red flags appear on your radar. But read ... the comments … As @romaz said ... QSA treatment ... forces you to rethink the value question. I am now figuring out how I can afford QSA ... ahead of upgrades to major components. Of course we all would like to know just what the hell is happening … But with a money-back guarantee, you might want to give these cables a shot. [ag]


From the “my take” thread:

I took the chance on a Red fuse … retails for $1422 … I went straight to QSA … I wired them the necessary funds … It isn't just a little better than the SR Orange, it is a Grand Canyon chasm like difference … I went back to QSA and asked to ... exchange for a Silver fuse … QSA makes fuses expressly for digital gear that is designed to address HF noise better and so obviously, these fuses are intentionally filtering. I already knew this because I have bypassed fuses before and I know what that sounds like. Yeah, I'm a crazy lunatic for spending this much money on fuses but I'm a happy crazy lunatic … If you're the kind of audiophile who is open to spending $10-20K for a power cord, then something like a Silver fuse could make sense … I have no measurements I can offer and I suspect they don't either. [r]

fuse rolling would be a recipe for audio neuroses … If anyone is looking to find a good value on a QSA Silver fuse, I have one for sale. Perfect size for Taiko Extreme (6.3A - 250V). PM me. [w]

Whatever, dude. Why troll this thread? Nothing better to do with your life? … Everyone should pay attention to the new QSA Lanedri line of products being discussed. [a]

Several folk in whose ears I trust have claimed that these things [Power Jitters] bring a more significant improvement than power cords. We don’t think twice about a $7500 power cord, but if this doohickey moves the needle even more, maybe it’s the expensive power cord that becomes not the wisest use of money. [k]


Conclusion: The few bolds are mine. What are the motives of the evangelist where large sums of money are solicited in exchange for mere promise? Extraordinary claims for a wide range of QSA products – including Gold LAN Adapters at merely $7,000 a pair, and white plastic UK wall plates costing £1,500 – are most convincingly explained by psychological herd factors – not “quantum” ones. This is not an audiophile dawn.

wall socket.jpg
 
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tony22

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12. The cables themselves start out life as complete $50 - $100 Blue Jeans and Iconocast cables

Just to clarify, The Iconoclast cables are a far cry from the (good for the budget minded) Blue Jeans cables. While both use Belden wire, the construction of the Iconoclast cables (all fully documented by their creator Galen Gaeris, with no smoke and mirrors) results in something that is far and away better, and in my own experience competitive with some of the best cables in the <$10K mid-thousands range I’ve been able to try in my own system. They are not “bog standard” (my words) by any stretch of the imagination, and cost quite a bit more than the $50-$100 Blue Jeans cables.
 
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Iving

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Forgive me for asking but I went to the webs site (which is absolutely horrible and lacking clarity in so many ways- might as well be in Martian) but I want to make sure I understand the above. Is the Double socket wall plate just a cover or does this include the metal receptacles themselves?

Not sure whether equiv. to what you mean by receptacles, but will look something like this other side (metal parts presumably having had £1,499's worth of quantum treatment):

1677706897866.png
 

marty

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Not sure whether equiv. to what you mean by receptacles, but will look something like this other side (metal parts presumably having had £1,499's worth of quantum treatment):

View attachment 105343
Yes, it appears it is the receptacle, not just the plastic wall plate cover. Ordinarily I wouldn't have asked, but with these guys, you can't be too certain. After all, when a cheater plug costs $7500, can you blame me for asking?
 

highstream

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Why has nobody brought up the possibility (likelihood) that the QSA "process" is a cryogenic treatment?
There are many variations of such and if done correctly it is highly audible and effective. Long ago I worked with a firm specializing in it. They offered their services and proprietary process (rate of cooling, final coldest temp., how long at that temp., then how long and rate of bringing back up to room temp.) to golf club manufacturers, cutting tool makers, drum kit cymbal and drum head/rim assemblies, and to audio manufacturers. It was great, but when done on cables (or capacitors) with Teflon insulation, it would double or triple the already exceedingly long time that Teflon takes to "burn-in."

Blackmorec raised it in the other thread, as I recall, but then deleted the comment. I thought it is an interesting hypothesis.

A couple of other comments:

In the OP re #12, actually the 5' (1.5m) digital Blue Jeans cable is $26.50.

Anyone who has heard the effects of QSA fuses, the Red and Red/Black in my case, will have no hesitation in believing that the claims about the cables could be true.

The key thing, though, money aside, ultimately is how the Lanedri mod works vis a vis one's tastes re tonality. The cables are being described by romaz and another commenter as emphasizing presence, which those who like a bit of warmth and the emotional involvement deriving from that may well not like. I never have, as it's typically a different frequency curve emphasizing the upper end, vs. lower midrange/upper bass. And I know that Sablon, starting with the Reserva line, and I assume continuing since then to the lines being used by QSA-Lanedri, switched to "neutral" tonality from the warmth of their initial, highly regarded Corona line. The Spectra series is not only using Sablon, but presumably keeps the Sablon connectors, which are palladium over silver plated IEC's. I don't know about palladium, but have to wonder if silver in that location cools the sound (for example, rhodium connectors are a cable killer for me).
 

highstream

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Hmm… I don’t relate to Presence being related to a cooler (or warmer) sound. To me, it relates to qualities that relate to real sound (as opposed to HiFi sound)— like timbral accuracy, body, clarity, ambiance.

I've never heard a warm "present" sound. Have you? Audiophiles typically pay attention to the results, not how they are achieved. The sound tonality in good part has to do with frequency curves. If I understand correctly, a focused sense of presence goes along with "neutral" tonality and is achieved by bumping the upper midrange a little, while either not doing so commensurately with the lower midrange/upper bass bump, or doing so more than the latter (most people wouldn't like true neutral, a flat response). An isolated test of the cables would tell us.
 

Blackmorec

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I've never heard a warm "present" sound. Have you? Audiophiles typically pay attention to the results, not how they are achieved. The sound tonality in good part has to do with frequency curves. If I understand correctly, a focused sense of presence goes along with "neutral" tonality and is achieved by bumping the upper midrange a little, while either not doing so commensurately with the lower midrange/upper bass bump, or doing so more than the latter (most people wouldn't like true neutral, a flat response). An isolated test of the cables would tell us.
In my opinion, warmth and presence are not mutually exclusive IF both are present on the recording. If on the other hand one or the other are artefacts (emphasis) of the hi-fi then sure….it would be one or the other.
 
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highstream

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There are what seem like intentionally warm recordings and then there are the rest, the vast majority. It’s how a system handles those, sort of its baseline sound that I’m speaking to. In the QSA case, romaz and one other commenter counterposed the cables’ sense of presence to warmth.
 
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taipan254

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TL;DR: IMO, the QSA process is unlikely to be a cryogenic treatment given time requirements. For reasons outlined below, my best estimate of the process being applied by QSA to cables, fuses, etc, is called electroplasticity. Does anyone know about this? What does everyone else think?

Long version:


I really don't think there's cryogenic treatment happening here - everything I've read about cryo thus far says it requires a lot of time (a day to gradually cool cable down, a day to treat, and a day to gradually increase the cable back to room temp). However, Steven Tsang's (the scientific mind behind QSA) LinkedIn profile says his process only takes "a few seconds" (which honestly could be an exaggeration too). However, QSA's website shows tons of gadgets and cables that have gone through the QSA process. Therefore, my best guess is the QSA process takes less than a day and is, therefore, less time-intensive / higher turnover.

Steven Tsang's LinkedIn profile also mentions how his process is better than a traditional cable cooker. I've heard of cable cookers, but really don't know how they work. So I looked up them up. They fire square waves at high voltage into a cable at a variety of frequencies (from 0 Hz to 40 kHz). I then went to Chat GPT to ask a few questions about electrical conductivity, copper, annealing, and electrical pulses and I ended up in an interesting place regarding a technology called electroplasticity - anyone heard of it? My ChatGPT conversation is pasted below.

Can the electrical conductivity of copper be increased?
Yes, the electrical conductivity of copper can be increased through various methods. Copper is already a good conductor of electricity, but certain processes can further enhance its conductivity.

One way to increase the electrical conductivity of copper is to refine the metal to a high purity level. Copper that is very pure has fewer impurities that can hinder the movement of electrons, which results in higher conductivity. This can be achieved through processes such as electrolysis or chemical purification.

Another method to increase conductivity is to change the crystal structure of the copper. Annealing copper can alter its crystal structure, reducing defects in the metal and increasing its conductivity.

Additionally, the addition of small amounts of other metals can improve the electrical conductivity of copper. For example, the addition of silver or gold can enhance its conductivity while still maintaining its ductility and other desirable properties.

Overall, while copper is already a good conductor of electricity, it is possible to increase its conductivity through various refining and processing methods.

Tell me more about increasing copper's electrical conductivity by changing its crystal structure.
Copper's electrical conductivity can be increased by changing its crystal structure through a process called annealing. Annealing is a heat treatment process that involves heating the copper to a specific temperature and then cooling it down slowly.

During the annealing process, the crystal structure of the copper is modified, reducing defects and dislocations that can hinder the movement of electrons. This results in an increase in electrical conductivity.

There are several different types of annealing processes, including recrystallization annealing, full annealing, and stress relief annealing. Each of these processes has a specific temperature and duration, which are chosen based on the desired crystal structure and electrical properties.

Recrystallization annealing, for example, involves heating the copper to a temperature below its melting point and then holding it there until new grains with lower defects and dislocations form. Full annealing, on the other hand, involves heating the copper to a higher temperature and holding it there for a longer period of time to allow more extensive grain growth.

It is important to note that while annealing can increase the electrical conductivity of copper, it can also affect other properties such as strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the specific annealing process used must be carefully chosen to balance the desired electrical properties with other requirements of the application.

Can electric pulses alter the copper's crystal structure?

Yes, electric pulses can alter the crystal structure of copper through a process called electroplasticity. Electroplasticity is a phenomenon where the application of high-frequency electric pulses to a metal causes the metal to undergo plastic deformation without the need for external mechanical forces.

The high-frequency electric pulses create a pulsed current that causes localized heating and melting of the metal at the point of contact with the electrode. This creates a microscale melt pool that then rapidly solidifies due to the cooling effect of the surrounding metal. The rapid cooling results in a fine-grained structure with reduced defects and dislocations, which can improve the electrical conductivity of the copper.

The use of electroplasticity for the processing of metals is a relatively new and developing field, and its application to copper is still being explored. However, some studies have shown promising results in improving the electrical conductivity of copper through electroplasticity. This method has potential for industrial applications as it can be performed relatively quickly and at low temperatures, making it a potentially energy-efficient and cost-effective process.

Is the electroplasticity process quick?

Yes, electroplasticity is generally a very quick process compared to traditional methods of plastic deformation, such as cold rolling or extrusion. The high-frequency electric pulses used in electroplasticity can induce plastic deformation in a matter of microseconds, resulting in rapid and localized changes in the microstructure of the metal.

The duration and frequency of the electric pulses used in electroplasticity can be adjusted to control the degree of plastic deformation and the resulting microstructure of the metal. This allows for fine-tuning of the process to achieve the desired material properties.

Compared to traditional methods of plastic deformation, electroplasticity offers several advantages. It does not require the application of external mechanical forces, which can reduce the wear and tear on processing equipment and reduce energy consumption. Additionally, it can be performed at room temperature, which reduces the risk of thermal distortion or degradation of the metal.

Overall, electroplasticity is a promising technique for processing metals with potential applications in various industries, including electrical conductivity enhancement of metals like copper.

What studies were you referring to?

There have been several studies on the application of electroplasticity for the processing of copper and other metals. Here are some examples of studies that have shown promising results:

In a study published in Materials Science and Engineering A in 2012, researchers investigated the effect of electroplasticity on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pure copper. They found that electroplasticity treatment significantly reduced the grain size of the copper, resulting in a corresponding increase in the electrical conductivity and tensile strength of the material.

In a study published in Applied Physics Letters in 2013, researchers investigated the effect of electroplasticity on the electrical conductivity of copper nanowires. They found that electroplasticity treatment significantly improved the electrical conductivity of the copper nanowires by reducing the number of dislocations and defects in the material.

In a study published in the Journal of Materials Science in 2018, researchers investigated the effect of electroplasticity on the microstructure and electrical conductivity of a copper alloy. They found that electroplasticity treatment resulted in a significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the material, which they attributed to the formation of a refined and uniform microstructure.

These are just a few examples of studies that have demonstrated the potential of electroplasticity for improving the electrical conductivity of copper and other metals. As this is a relatively new field of research, there is still much to be explored and discovered about the potential applications of electroplasticity in various industries
 
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highstream

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Interesting. Assuming it hasn't gone off the deep end, it seems Chat GPT worked. Let's say electroplasticity is possibly what's going on. Some questions arise right off for me: Is the electroplastic process applicable to the contents of small fuses, since that's where QSA has so far been making its name? Is the process yet sufficiently refined to allow variations for testing different constructions or transformative conditions in a way that allows for choosing among variations in sound quality? I imagine there would be other questions.
 

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